experimental cyclosporine toxicity on male reproduction and renal function. Reversal by concomitant human chorionic gonadotropin administration Transplantation;49:17-9..
-Seethalakshmi, L., Menon, M., Malhotra, RK., Diamond, DA. (1987).Effect of cyclosporine A on male reproduction in rats. J Urol;138:991-5.
-Selvakumar, E., Prahalathan, C., Sudharsan, P.T., and Varalakshmi P. (2006). Chemoprotective effect of lipoic acid against cyclophosphamide-induced changes in the rat sperm. Toxicology, 217, 71-78.
-Shahat, A.A., Cos, P. and De Bruyne, T. (2002). Antiviral and antioxidant activity of flavonoids and proanthocyanidins from Crataegus sinaica. Planta Med., 68, 539-541.
-Sharma, R.K. and Agarwal, A. (1996). Role of reactive oxygen species in male infertility. Urology, 48, 835-850.
-Sharp, P. E. and LaRegina, M. C. (1998). The Laboratory Rat, CRC Press, New York, pp.: 15-19.
-Sheehan, H.L., Storey, G.W. (1947). An improved method of staining leukocyte granules with Sudan Black B. J. Pathol. Bacteriol., 59, 336.
-Shekarriz, M., Sharma, R.K., Thomas, A.J. Jr. and Agarwal, A. (1995). Positive myeloperoxidase staining (Endtz test) as an indicator of excessive reactive oxygen species formation in semen. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet., 12, 70-74.
-Sies, H. (1993). Strategies of antioxidant defence. Eur. J. Biochem., 215, 213-219.
-Sikka, S.C. (2001). Relative impact of oxidative stress on male reproductive function. Curr. Med. Chem. 8, 851-862.
-Sirinivas, M., Agarwala, S., Datta Gupta, S., Das, SN., Jha, P., Misro, MM.(1998). Effect of cyclosporine on fertility in male rats. Pediatr Surg Int;13:388-91.
-Spiropoulos, J., Turnbull, D.M. and Chinnery, P.F. (2002). Can mitochondrial DNA mutations cause sperm dysfunction? Mol. Hum. Reprod., 8, 719-721.
-Shi,J., Yu,J., Pohorly,J.E. (2003). Polyphenolics in grape seeds. Biochemistry and functionality. J. Med. Food, 6:291-299.
-Smith, E. R., Stefanick, M. L., Clark, J. T. and Davidson, J. M. (1992). Hormones and sexual behavior in relationship to aging in male rats. Horm. Behav., 26, 110-135.
-Smith, R., Kaune, H.,Parodi, D., Madariaga, M., Rios, R., Morales, I. and Castro, A.(2006).Increased sperm DNA damage in Patients with varicocele: relationship with seminal oxidative stress. Hum Reprod, 21:986-93.
-Storey, B.T.(1997).Biochemistry of the induction and prevention of lopoperoxidativedamage in human spermatozoa.Mol Hum Reprud 3, 203-214.
-Suchow, M.A., Weisbroth, S.H. and Franklin C.L. (2006). The Laboratory rat.2th ed. Elsevier, Pp:831-833.
-Sun, F.z.,Bradshaw, J.P., Galli, C., Moor, R.M.(1993). Transient intracellular calcium concentration rise in bovine oocytes fallowing sperm penetration and fertilization ReprodFertil. 11,66-74.
-Taanman, J.W.(1999). The mitochondrial genome: structure, transcription, translation
and replication. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 1410, 103-123.
-Tatemoto, H., Ootaki, K., Shigeta, K. and Muto, N. (2001). Enhancement of developmental competence after in vitro fertilization of porcine oocytes by treatmentTheriogenology 39, 121-135.
-Takahashi, M., Shinoda, K., and Hayashi, Y. (1992). Nonneoplastic changes in the testis. In U. Mohr, D. L. Dungworth, and C. C. Capen(eds.), Pathobiology in the Aging Rat, Volume 1, ILSI Press, Washington, D.C., pp.: 407-411 to cellular DNA. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 267, 67-74.Treat 2004;85:1-12.
-Tarin, J.J., Brines, J., and Cano, A. (1998). Antioxidants may protect against infertility. Hum. Reprod., 13, 1415-1416.
-Thomas. J., Fishel, S.B., Hall, J.A., Green, S., Newton, T.A., and Thornton, S.J. (1997). Increased polymorphonuclear granulocytes in seminal plasma in relation to sperm morphology. Hum. Reprod., 12, 2418-2421.
-Tucker, M.J. (2003). The Male Genital System, In: Diseases of the Wistar Rat, Taylor & Francis, London, pp.: 163-177.
-Turk, G., Sonmez, M., Ceribasi. A.O., Yuce, A.( 2010.(Atessahin A.Attenuation of cyclosporine A-induced testicular and spermatozoa damages associated with oxidative stress by ellagic acid. IntImmunopharmacol;10:177-182.
-Veveris, M., Koch, E., and Chatterjee, S.S. (2004). Crataegus special extract WS(R) 1442 improves cardiac function and reduces infarct size in a rat model of prolonged coronary ischemia and reperfusion. Life Sciences, 74, 1945-1955.
-Wall, R.J., Hawk, H. W ., Making, N.)1992(. Transgenic Livestock: genetic engineering on a large scale, J Cell Biochem. 49(2), 113-120.
-Wang C. (1999). Male reproduction function , Kluwer academic publisher, 1th ed. Pp:611.
-Wani, N.A.)2002(.In vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization of sheep oocyte, small Rum Res 44,89-95.
-Warren, J.S., Johnson, K.J. and Ward, P.A. (1987). Oxygen radicals in cell injury and cell death. Pathol. Immunopathol. Res., 6, 301-315.
-Wolff, H. (1995). The biologic significance of white blood cells in semen. Fertil. Steril. 63, 1143-1157.
-Wroblewski, N., Schill, W.B. and Henkel R. (2003). Metal chelators change the human sperm motility pattern. Fertil. Steril., 79, 1584-1589.
-Wyrobek, A.J., Gordon, L.A., Burkhart, J.G., Francis, M.W., Kapp, R.W. Jr., Letz, G., Malling, H.V., Topham, J.C., and Whorton, M.D. (1983). An evaluation of the mouse sperm morphology test and other sperm tests in nonhuman mammals. A report of the US environmental protection agency gene-tox program. Mutat. Res., 115(1), 1-72.
-Yang, M.Y.,Rajamahendran, R.)1999.( Apoptosis in bovine oocytes and in
preimplantation embryos: the role of Bcl-2 and Bax genes. Biol. Reprod. 60 (Suppl. 1),
-Yang, H.W., Hwang, K.J., Kwon, H.C.,Kim, H.S., Choi, K.W., Oh, K.S. )1998(.Detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis in human fragmented embryos. Hum. Reprod. 13, 998-1002.
-Yao, M., Ritchie, H.E. and Brown-Woodman, P.D. (2008). A reproductive screening test of hawthorn. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 118, 127-132.
-Yousef,M.I. and Salama,A.F. (2009). Propolis protection from reproductive toxicity caused by aluminium chloride in male rats. Food and Chem. Toxicology, 47: 1168-1175.
-Yousef ,M.I., Kamel, K.L., ElGuendi,M.I. and El-Demerdash, F.M. (2007). An in vitro study on reproductive toxicity of aluminium chloride on rabbit sperm: The protective role of some antioxidants. Toxicology, 239: 213-223.
-Zambrano, E., Rodriguez-Gonzalez, G.L., Guzman, C., Garcia-Becerra, R., Boeck, L., Diaz, L., Menjivar, M., Larrea, F., and Nathanielsz, P.W. (2005). A maternal low protein diet during pregnancy and lactation in the rat impairs male reproductive development. J. Physiol., 563(1), 275-284.
-Zhang, X., Sharma, R.K., Agarwal, A. and Falcone, T. (2005). Effect of pentoxifylline in reducing oxidative stress-induced embryotoxicity. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet., 22, 415-417.
-Zhang, Z., Chang, Q. and Zhu, M. (2001). Characterization of antioxidants present in hawthorn fruits. J. Nutr. Biochem., 12, 144-152.
Cyclosporin (CsA), a cyclic undecapeptide of fungal origin, is a powerful immunosuppressive agant that has markedly improved graft survival rates in organ transplantation. Black Grape Seed and Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), widely distributed medicinal plants, are highly regarded for their medicinal activities, including antioxidant properties. The present study was conducted to assess whether Black Grape Seed aqueous Extract and Haawthorn aqueous extracts with anti-oxidant properties could serve as protective agents against testicular toxicity during CsA treatment in rat model. 32 male Wistar rats With 200±20 g after 7 days of acclimation were categorized into four groups) Control, Cyclosporin, Cyclosporin and Hawthorn aqueous extracts, Cyclosporin and Grape seed aqueous extracts(. Three group of rats were administered CsA at a dose of 40 mg/kg/day in 0.5 ml sesame Oil for 45 days by oral gavages. Two of these groups received Grape seed aqueous extracts and Hawthorn aqueous extracts at a dose of 150g/kg/day With Cyclosporine administration. After 25 and 45 day in all group , testes, epididymides were quickly dissected out. For sperm characteristics analysis, Invitro fertilization, histological alterations, stereological parameters, spermatogenesis indices, carbohydrate rate, lipid accumulation, alkaline phosphatase were evaluated in histological sections of testis. The CsA-treated group (25and 45 days) showed significant decreases , spermatogenic index Such as (number of Sertoli cells) and stereological parameters (seminiferous tubules diameters and their epithelial heights, number of Leydig in a unit area of testis) as well as many histological alterations included atrophy of seminiferous tubules, germ cell aplasia, mast cells invasion and interstitial space widening of intertubular connective tissue. Spermatogenic cells in the CsA-exposed rats exhibited a weak reaction to the PAS staining, strong reactions to the Sudan Black B and alkaline phosphatase stainings . CsA treatment also caused a significant decrease (P 0.05) in sperm count and significant increase in dead and abnormal sperms and sperm With Damage Chromatin. These findings indicate that cyclosporin can adversely damage the testicular tissue through imposing oxidative stress, while Grape seed and Hawthorn aqueous extracts coadministration could effectively prevent these adverse effects by effective inhibiting of oxidative processes and restoration of antioxidant defense system. It also improved the embryo development and quality , increased the percentage of oocyt fertilization, two cell embryos, blastosystes, and the cleavage rate and decreased embryo arrest, and also improved the cultured embryos morphologically (p0.05).
کند.از اين به بعد فخري ماهيتي دو پاره پيدا مي کند.بخش پست و حقير فخري وقتي است که او همان فخري کلفت باقي مي ماندو بخش فرهيخته شخصيتش وقتي است که او جانشين فخر االنساء ادامه مطلب…